How to Identification wood

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Here is the best system for wood identification.
This document examines the current system of wood monitoring information used in the international wood trade, with the aim of preventing and controlling the wood and illegal registered wood products. In addition, the mechanisms and technologies for monitoring innovative records are also described and evaluated. Wood tracing can add value to the wood product, which establishes an information system for the purpose of recognizing and finding legal and holding products. Apart from the methods to detect traditional punch and paint strains, there are several digital wood conversion systems for recognition, record detection, and monitoring, including barcodes, QR codes, RFID, microchips, etc.

In addition, there are also several innovative wood detection systems. Presented and discussed. The purpose of the document is to describe and indicate the methods used in the wood trading sector to identify current trends and perspectives and to meet them about their reliability, practical, information level that provides and cost. In addition, it provides information on registration trackability methods used in Greek forests.
Currently, the management of natural resources should face the largest variety of compounds between the various environmental characteristics and decisions of local, regional, national, and international relevance, with high coordination and exchange between administrations and actors throughout the public/private and the Expert /. Distribution of stakeholders (Andreopoulou et al., 2011). At the end of the twentieth century, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) initially realized illegal logging and the ecological impact of illegal forest sea and forestry (Tacconi, 2007).

After the global forest management has identified the need to guarantee the legality of wood in the international wood trade sector, especially since illegal registered timber trade along with illegal forest activities is a major problem for many wood producing countries (Brack, 2005, Cashore and Stone, 2012). Illegal registration refers to a variety of illegal activities related to forest ecosystems, forestry, and wood and non-wood wood products (Tacconi, 2007).

First, in the first place in the context of global environmental concerns acknowledged that illegal records and related trade in many wood producing countries are a daily practice and contribute to forest degradation (Brack, 2003, Wiersum, 2013). Obviously, several companies, in developed and developing countries, benefit from significant benefits arising from illegal activities (Brack, 2002, Brack, 2003). The initial step to controlling international wood trade is the establishment of a digital system to identify records legally produced and wood products. Information Communication Technologies (ICT) can be used in environmental management in the interest of the natural environment and natural resources in respect of sustainability (Andreopoulou, 2013). The ability to perform and detect all the follow-up of products in industries is carried out by implementing automatic identification systems, capable of creating a link between the product, the product database, and its process. The follow-up mechanisms are further completed by the composition of individual wood products and wood shipments, which generally contain a wide variety of records and processed products, with different species and sizes (Tzoulis and Andrerepulou, 2013). Traceability Information Systems consist of processes to maintain records that expose the route of a particular entry of suppliers to final clients (DAFF, 2007).

Under EU legislation means “trackability” means the ability to detect any product, in all phases of production, processing, and distribution. This track refers to recording through barcodes, RFID tags, QR codes, and other follow-up methods (EU, 2007). The elemental characteristics of trackability systems are a) identification of units / many of all entries (product trackability information), b) identification of the packet of the processed product (production records and marked bundle), c) information on when and where they move and where They move and/or transform (documentation) and d) a system that connects this data (reconciles the product to the documentation).

Emerging Tracerability Technology operates as a means of communication that makes the information accessible along the supply chain, so defects management between these links creates a crack in the informal settlement and the resulting loss of traceability (Tzoulis and Andreopoulou, 2013). A support traceability system is based on locating the products one step forward and a step back at any stage in the supply chain. There are reviews on key trackability technologies, such as DNA markers, electronic labeling, ways to store and transfer traceability data and the scope of data carriers technology in various studies, its decisive factors (Ramesh, 1998), the need for verifiable traceability ( Opar, 2003), the role of traceability systems not only to ensure security and combat fraud but also by optimizing business performance along with the description of new techniques (Smith and Furress, 2006, Bechini, 2008, Mousavi, 2005).

Timber traceability

Forests provide a wide range of services to people, including timber products, recreational opportunities, and ecosystem services. About half of the wood products collected for human consumption around the world are used for firewood, and the other half is used for industrial purposes such as furniture, building materials, and paper products. Forest products are an important element of international trade. Processed products are becoming more important as part of the total export of wood products and in many countries the production of secondary processed wood products, including wooden furniture, construction wood products (doors, window frames, floors, etc.) Exports are also increasing. ) And a series of small products (tools, brooms, boxes, etc.) (Bourke and Leitch, 2000).
Designed to control illegal timber trade, each system identifies, inspects, and documents harvested logs, then processes and packs them for export, and then cross-checks with cooperating importers. You need to do. The purpose of timber traceability is to investigate ways to prevent the movement of illegal timber and eliminate the import and export of illegally logged timber, including the possibility of an old reporting system for traded timber. Establishing information systems to prevent illegal products adds value to products (FAO, 2002)

A conservation chain quote is needed to determine whether illegal timber enters legal trade during harvesting, processing, or export according to this process. (Bourke and Leitch, 2000; Brack, 2005). Various wood tracking techniques for tracking logs from wood to sawmills, from simple painting methods to barcode labels, mechanized coding systems, and radio frequency identification receivers, have already been described (Bracket. Al). ., 2002; Dykstraet. Al., 2003; Tzoulis and Andreopoulou, 2013).
Timber traded around the world must come from forests managed in a sustainable manner. Two sustainable forest management certification systems have been developed: a) FSC: Forest Stewardship Council and b) PEFC: Forest Certification Scheme Approval Program (ACE UK, 2012). The country can trade round wood and export the manufactured paper, and the relevant information is where the wood was grown as a traceability application. This information is then used to track the origin of the main products behind the products consumed throughout the international supply chain (Kastner, 2011).

Timber traceability information systems ensure that timber comes from sustainable sources and provide effective technology for combating illegal logging. These information systems cover data on the origin and migration of timber from the entire harvest area to its final destination. To ensure product legality, it is important to closely monitor timber production and the movement of timber and timber products (Brack, 2003).

In the wood industry, the achievement of common identification and information systems used in other industries presents implementation problems, mainly due to the nature of the wood and the specific characteristics of the manufacturing process. Wood has great variability in its structure and is highly valued for its varying degrees of properties such as knots and crossgrains, resulting in the very diverse properties of wood being the use of unique properties. Contributes to. Recognition (Charpentier and Choffel, 2003). However, high-tech traceability information systems have additional costs (Brown, 1997). If an effective legal information tracking system is developed and can be mandated by the state, illegal timber can be defined as any timber that is not included in the system and exists outside. However, such information systems are likely to be developed voluntarily and experimentally at first, perhaps in certain countries, and certainly not universal, and timber not covered by the system is simply “unknown.” Is the legality of.

It has not been explicitly identified as legal, but it is not automatically illegal. Given the current trends in wood and wood products in modern society, wood is the raw material for a variety of primary processing industrial products such as poles, sawn timber, veneer, plywood, particleboard, fiberboard, and pulpwood. The entrepreneurial spirit is becoming more and more interesting. Materials for manufacturing other products such as furniture and secondary treated paper (Tzoulis, 2013)

The purpose of this work is to study new traceability technologies and tracking information systems used in the timber trading sector to combat logging and illicit trade and add value to the product itself. This benefits both businesses and consumers, and of course, also helps trade between countries that provide higher quality timber and its products from legitimate sources. The characteristics and comments of each method are presented and the reliability, practicality, cost, and level of the information provided are evaluated. For Pertouli University Forest in Greece, more insights into modern timber tracking systems are provided.


First, various timber traceability and other tracking systems used as tools for high quality timber trading are identified, recorded and investigated to combat illegal logging and add value and reliability to the product. increase. Literature reviews were conducted in relative studies and studies to identify and register detection systems (Choffel, 1999, Brack, 2002, Brack, 2003, Charpentier, 2003, Dykstra , 2003, Johannsson et al., 2003, Mousavi et al., 2005, Brack, 2005, Fuentealba, 2006, Smith and Furness, 2006, Bechini et al., 2008, Niblaeus, 2009, Lyne, 2009, Ntalos et al., 200 2012, Hansen, 2012, Varallyai, 2013, Tzoulis and Andreopoulou, 2013) and related sources on the Internet (IK EU, 2010, GIZ, 2010, FSANZ, 2012, Adazon, 2013). Traceability techniques for tracking and monitoring records have been described as qualitative criteria such as reliability, practical feasibility, cost, and information level.

A field survey was conducted at the University Forest Pertouli in central Greece in the summer of 2013 to gain insights into Greece’s modern timber discovery system.

QR code

QR code, which is an abbreviation for “quick response” code, is a two-dimensional bar code that can be read by QR barcode readers, cameras, smartphones, etc. This is called a 2D barcode because the QR code can convey information both vertically and horizontally, dramatically increasing data storage capacity compared to simple barcodes. QR codes first appeared in Japan, which is widely used. It is a registered trademark of Denso Wave Incorporated. Used in Japan and is currently used in many countries (Lyne, 2009). The QR code can be printed and displayed anywhere. With the spread of smartphones with QR reader applications, QR codes contain all kinds of information, explanations, details such as consumers, cultural visitors, science, entertainment, etc. that apply to basic products. Therefore, it has become a general tool. Also available online (Waters, 2012). Originally used to find parts in automotive manufacturing, QR codes are now used in groups of applications such as cash registers, as well as in the environment and agriculture in general. Many areas of agriculture are covered by QR codes (Hansen, 2012). By adding a QR code near the price tag, you can provide potential information directly to your customers, such as allergy information and preparation tips. In most cases, the most important goal is system traceability or monitoring. Thus, QR codes can be very useful for the “industrial chain” of wood, not only because of the origin of the wood but also because of its technical data (Waters, 2012). For wood traceability, a QR code can be laser marked on a tree stump (Tzoulis and Andreopoulou, 2013).

Rotary / Brand Hummer

All of these methods of lumber detection systems that make up the technical means of lumber identification and timber detection mechanisms are presented with information on their reliability, practical feasibility, cost, and level of information. This is an easy and inexpensive way to hammer the tip of a stump and requires minimal training. Marking a stump with a hammer is a simple technique and the oldest way to mark ownership or thoughtful use of a stump. Applying only to felled trees is a practical, quick and easy method, but making a copy of the perforator is so easy that it has little security and reliability.

This method usually checks for a large number of locally identified symbols. However, unique encryption is used for full traceability. This represents the code that is automatically applied to the recorder in the recorder. This code can be linked to commercial and physical data on the registry stored in the database. Bumps can be detected by cameras and visual systems, but environmental issues such as mud and ice can hinder successful reading (Niblaeus, 2009).

Chemical paint label

Marking stumps with paint whose color is the code is one of the oldest and cheapest methods (Dukstra Marking can be done automatically or manually and is similar to punching. It is moderately reliable and provides information rather than the source of the record. This can give false readings if the paint breaks or reacts as well. I’m having trouble marking wet areas of the stump with paint, and there are snow, mud, and color changes. This is practical because it does not require any specific training. The goal is to find a profitable solution. For this reason, LNP (Solid Particle Nanoparticles) are used. These nanoparticles are added to liquid paints that are invisible to normal light, but become visible when irradiated with a laser. The biggest advantage is the wide frequency range and the details that allow the wavelength to be aligned with high accuracy. This means a more unique ID. Another important finding is that LNP is crueler to snow and mud and more difficult to tamper with (IK EU, 2010).

DNA fingerprint

New experimental methods at the research level are presented to prevent fraud and other illegal activity in track logs. This method of finding records is unique to each tree and is based on the annual ring recorded in the database along with the sample. The genetic composition of the tree population represents a spatial model. That is, you can track and control the origin of wood by comparing the genotype of the wood sample with the genetic pattern observed in the sample population, which is the DNA of the wood. supply.
This is a reliable method because DNA cannot be tampered with (Smith and Burgess, 2006). These types of record-keeping methods are impractical because they require the presence of a suitable database, are very expensive to set up, and require highly specialized training. However, it is a reliable and secure method because it provides a high level of information.
In other cases of isotope fingerprints, isotopes differ in specific mass. Plants absorb a variety of chemical elements through water, soil nutrients, and photosynthesis.

The isotope distribution shows different patterns, and the combination of these patterns of different elements can verify the certificate of origin (GIZ, 2010).

Microwave sensor detection technology is based on the use of microwave sensors to identify the internal brand of wood products that was first used to find wood features such as knots, cross grains (Charpentier, 2003), and mechanical properties. You can get it. Made of wood (Choffel, 1999). Microwaves process materials according to their dielectric properties (Fuentealba, 2006). The penetration of these types of waves through wood is primarily influenced by the moisture content and the presence of features such as knots and veins that vary from table to table used for automatic identification. The product circulates between the sender and the receiver, and its trademark is digitized on a computer (Johansson

Innovative way

Some innovative methods have been proposed internationally, others are still under investigation (Bracket. Al. 2002).

  1. French CIRAD-Foret system

This is an easy and cheap way to locate the wood by recording the average diameter and trunk length of the two points and sketching the growth ring with the two points and other features (knots, capsules, curves, etc.). .. .. ). Each record has a matching serial number. The form contains all the information you need, but it does require cross-checking and auditing. This is a reliable method. Documents that are safe for infants and crossword fittings between cutting and processing make it difficult to exchange logs in the system. This method allows counterfeit foam and hammer marks to pass checkpoints but is detected by an audit. This method is virtually easy to learn and use as an alternative to forest management consulting development. It is also used in Thailand and Laos (Brack, 2002).

2. Microslabrators are fine particles

This is a very reliable and costly method with a high level of information and is virtually impossible to tamper with. These particles are made up of layers of plastic of different colors. Millions of permutations are possible by combining different colors in different sequences. Then read the coding sequence with an x100 pocket microscope. This is the fastest and easiest marking technique to apply with a spray gun. The disadvantage is that it can be difficult to read in the field and the installation cost is high, while damp or muddy stumps may not carry the marker well. The operating costs of that method are also low and provide a very high level of information.

3. Automatic camera and remote sensing

Automatic cameras are used on satellites in combination with remote sensing technology. This innovative method provides a large amount of high-level information, a costly method, but a large amount of information. This method is not practical for monitoring the movement of individual records, but it does provide valuable information about concessions at the national level. Automatic cameras and remote sensing are clearly large-scale technologies, not designed to measure individual records but to measure areas of action, cumulative traffic, and so on. For example, in December 1999, NASA launched two environmental satellites (LANDSAT 7 and EOSTERRA). This allows the custom creation of accurate forest maps and monitoring of many aspects of concession management, ensuring the truth of the region.

4. Reflector

Reflectors are laser-read and can be useful for aviation observers trying to track the boundaries of concessions, wooden trucks transporting illegal cargo, and so on. Satellite-based sensors, on the other hand, can read over long distances, but are now relatively heavy. .. In the past, technological advances in forest management have tended to overcome policies rather than being driven by them. Despite the major role of new information technologies, these systems are invented only when the political needs for their use are clearly identified. The reads are fast and accurate and can be performed remotely, such as in the air. This method provides very good reliability and safety and is a constantly improving method, but it lacks practical operation. This is a costly method, but the level of information is low and can be customized to include a memory card and a unique identifier.

5. Ground video surveillance camera and auto-starter

Ground surveillance cameras and automatic triggering devices are used for log detection. This method is reliable because the signal can be sent remotely to the controller. Monitoring the movement of individual stumps is not a practical system, but it is good to monitor major transport routes. It can be activated by a light, sound, or motion detector. Although it is possible to collect high levels of information, it is a very costly method (Brack


Barcodes have become a common part of modern life, adopted in international trade, and almost every product contains barcodes and has dominated the market for 40 years (Varallyai, 2013). Barcodes consist of machine-readable code in the form of numbers and patterns of parallel lines of various widths printed on articles or products. This is a practical method with a high level of reliability and security. An optical reader or scanner then collects the barcode and translates the information it contains, such as location, date of manufacture, shipping details, and entrepreneur’s name. It aims to further control the timber supply (Oxford Dictionary, 2013). Barcode traceability systems are simple and inexpensive, but the texture of the wood makes them difficult to apply on a large scale to wood trading and traceability. Still, there are several barcode wood traceability applications that use barcode-printed plastic or metal labels to catch up with felled trees. When trees are cut down, workers use a handheld barcode scanner to scan the process and export the data to a database (Adazon, 2013).

Case of timber detection in Greece

In Greece, until 1986, a governmental organization called the State Sexual Exploitation (SFT) was used to manage and distribute timber and its products. Today, both states and individuals have access to the timber trade. The forest of the University of Perturi in Trikala in central Greece is public land. Located in the Pindus, it stretches from the western slopes of Mt. Koziacas to the northeastern slopes of Mt. Budoura at an altitude of approximately 3,608.92-5,577.42 feet (latitude 39ο32′-39ο35′-39ο35′-3,313′). 3,321 feet). ′). It covers an area of ​​3296.59 hectares, of which 2 361.83 hectares are mostly forested or partially forested with pine and pine trees, 168.22 hectares of bare land and bare land, 583.71 hectares of mountains. Of pastures, 114 hectares of 80 hectares and 80 acres of grasslands and 80 acres. Of other types of soil. Land such as fields and villages. The hybrid self-seeded spruce dominates the forest area of ​​the University of Perri. There are also small groups such as beech, oak, maple, Austria, gin, sugi, linden, and willow trees.

Black, Scottish, Leukodamis pine, spruce, and thuja are also planted in the forest (AUTH, 2013). For proper forest management, the area is topographically structured and divided into nine zones (Bryco, Vati, Colombia, Carderimi, Rixa, Codiacus, Biga, Riopeika, and Grapassa). Forest products include intact or barkless pine blocks (up to 2 meters long), logs (2 meters long), and firewood. A series of measures have been taken to protect forests, but one of the stated goals is to achieve maximum sustainable production, and like all Greek forests, timber in university forests. The current mechanism used for monitoring is similar to the bridge mechanism.

For timber tracking systems, small metal shells are firmly attached to log stumps shortly after logging in the woodlands. The ticket gates draw and mark each particular stump. Use the following information about logs, such as log quality, log volume, and deadline information. All this information is electronically recorded in digital forms and verified by the Forest Department. Therefore, these records are stored in digital files kept by the local forestry department and validated for subsequent timber transactions with entrepreneurs. These records tracklogs until they are first mined in the industry.

In Conclusion

This document explored the physical limitations of establishing an information system for finding legally manufactured logs and timber products. However, such surveillance information systems can only work well if there is sufficient funding and political will. To ensure legal timber in the market, it is necessary to establish comprehensive and universal monitoring of all stages of the timber production, processing, transportation and import/export chains. In addition to traditional paper-based records management systems related to drilling and paint tracking, there are many alternative tracking options. In the age of digitization, there are computer-based information systems for recognizing, tracking, detecting, and monitoring records such as barcodes, QR codes, RFID, and microchips.

The wood traceability and wood traceability methods quoted and described differ in practicality and reliability. Innovative record-breaking mechanisms such as DNA fingerprints and satellite surveillance tend to be expensive and difficult to implement. Old and widely used methods such as paint markings, perforations and barcodes continue to exist and are effectively used in the wood supply chain. It is important that greater efforts are needed to improve international cooperation in the exchange of timber tracking data within the global information system on timber traceability with its own standards and properties.

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